By John A. H. Benzie
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Extra info for The genus Daphnia (including Daphniopsis) (Anomopoda:Daphniidae)
Hyalina, D. galeata and D. cucullata group suggested hybridization between all three species but no evidence for mating of the hybrids with one or other of the parental species (back-crossing), or of mating between the primary hybrids (Ff) with each other to form F2 generations (Wolf & Mort 1986). There has now been extensive work on the group by a number of authors using a variety of allozyme and DNA markers (Mort & Wolf 1985, 1986; Hebert et al. 1989; Schwenk 1993; Spaak 1994, 1995, 1996; Schierwater et al.
1995; Taylor et al. 1996; Colbourne & Hebert 1996). Early work using 12S ribosomal gene (12S rDNA) to compare several Daphnia 36 species with representatives from other cladoceran groups confirmed the monophyletic status of the genus Daphnia, and an ancient age for the genus (120 my) (Lehman et al. 1995). The monophyletic status of the Ctenodaphnia was confirmed in that study, together with an age of divergence greater than 100 my. Later work using nuclear genes (allozymes) and mtDNA (12S) showed general congruence of trees developed from nuclear (allozyme) and mtDNA, except where considerable hybridization was known to occur and had led to reticulate patterns of evolution such as in the D.
Wankeltae was later identified as a hybrid of the two clearly differentiated groups was consistent with this view. Hebert & Wilson (1994) later sampled a range of populations in south east Australia, using a more sophisticated approach to the analysis of population structure (by utilising plots of the Genotypic Diversity Ratio, Log of the probability that the population is in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium and F, the heterozygosity fixation index to simplify the first steps in the analysis) first used by Hebert et al.
The genus Daphnia (including Daphniopsis) (Anomopoda:Daphniidae) by John A. H. Benzie