By Ali Mobasheri, Carolyn A. Bondy, Kelle Moley, Alexandrina Ferreira Mendes, Susana Carvalho Rosa, Stephen Richardson, Judith A Hoyland, Richard Barrett-Jolley, Mehdi Shakibaei
Articular cartilage is a special and hugely really expert avascular connective tissue within which the provision of oxygen and glucose is considerably under synovial fluid and plasma. Glucose is a necessary resource of power in the course of embryonic progress and fetal improvement and is key for mesenchymal phone differentiation, chondrogenesis and skeletal morphogenesis. Glucose is a crucial metabolic gasoline for differentiated chondrocytes in the course of post-natal improvement and in grownup articular cartilage and is a typical structural precursor for the synthesis of extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans. Glucose metabolism is important for progress plate chondrocytes which perform lengthy bone progress. Glucose concentrations in articular cartilage can range looking on age, actual job and endocrine prestige. Chondrocytes are glycolytic cells and has to be capable of feel the focus of oxygen and glucose within the extracellular matrix and reply safely by way of adjusting mobile metabolism. for that reason chondrocytes should have the potential to outlive in an extracellular matrix with constrained nutrition and occasional oxygen tensions. released information from our laboratories recommend that chondrocytes exhibit a number of isoforms of the GLUT/SLC2A kinfolk of glucose/polyol transporters. In different tissues GLUT proteins are expressed in a cell-specific demeanour, show certain kinetic homes, and are developmentally regulated. a number of GLUTs expressed in chondrocytes are regulated by way of hypoxia, hypoxia mimetics, metabolic hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines. during this multidisciplinary article we evaluation the molecular and morphological facets of GLUT expression and serve as in chondrocytes and their mesenchymal and embryonic stem mobilephone precursors and suggest key roles for those proteins in glucose sensing and metabolic law in cartilage.
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Additional resources for Facilitative Glucose Transporters in Articular Chondrocytes: Expression, Distribution and Functional Regulation of GLUT Isoforms by Hypoxia, Hypoxia Mimetics, Growth Factors and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines
We have proposed that chronic hypoxia may occur in degenerate osteoarthritic joints and the consequent metabolic alterations may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of OA. We have observed that the glucose transport is upregulated in cultured equine chondrocytes in response to hypoxia and hypoxia mimetic agents such as cobalt chloride (Mobasheri et al. 2006) (Fig. 17). We have made very similar observations regarding the expression of GLUT1 and its regulation by hypoxia and cobalt chloride in human C-28/I2 chondrocyte-like cells (Fig.
Chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells appear to favor hypoxic conditions Molecular Diversity of Facilitative Glucose Transporters in Articular Chondrocytes 39 Oxygen demand exceeds supply Increased oxygen supply (higherATP) Cellular Hypoxia (lower ATP) New Blood Vessels Increased Vessel Diameter Increased Blood Oxygenation Glycolysis Decreased degradation and increased stabilization of HIF-1a Angiogenesis Vasodilation Increased oxygen capacity Glycolytic Genes Activation of oxygen sensitive ion channels and transporters Fig.
In the absence of insulin, this integral membrane protein is sequestered Physiological Roles of GLUTs 6–14 29 within the cells of muscle and adipose tissue; within minutes of insulin stimulation, the protein moves to the cell surface and begins to transport glucose across the cell membrane). GLUT5 is the product of the SLC2A5 gene. 5 times the average gene in this release. The sequence of the GLUT5 gene is defined by 318 GenBank accessions from 301 cDNA clones, some from testis (seen 46 times), kidney (32), brain (21), germinal center B cell (20), prostate (20), lymph (12), Burkitt’s lymphoma (10), and 62 other tissues.
Facilitative Glucose Transporters in Articular Chondrocytes: Expression, Distribution and Functional Regulation of GLUT Isoforms by Hypoxia, Hypoxia Mimetics, Growth Factors and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines by Ali Mobasheri, Carolyn A. Bondy, Kelle Moley, Alexandrina Ferreira Mendes, Susana Carvalho Rosa, Stephen Richardson, Judith A Hoyland, Richard Barrett-Jolley, Mehdi Shakibaei