By Novartis Foundation
The cerebral cortex is the crowning fulfillment of evolution and the organic substrate of human psychological capacities. utilizing a comparative evolutionary developmental method of the examine of its starting place is helping to provide new insights into this advanced and critical challenge. The comparability of immature phases unearths positive factors of evolution which are another way obstructed through the complexity of the mature mind, and the research of improvement by way of attainable evolutionary occasions is helping us to target the main biologically suitable mechanisms. during this e-book, top specialists within the fields of mammalian, reptilian, avian and amphibian mind improvement and from evolutionary biology, take on the basic query of the foundation of the cerebral cortex. The booklet comprises serious examinations of tools used to review homology within the significant apprehensive method and strategies utilized in cladistic research. fresh info at the earliest generated temporary cells within the mammalian, reptilian, avian and amphibian forebrain are mentioned, as are attainable homologies in accordance with particular connectional research. a number of the hypotheses at the foundation of the mammalian isocortex are mentioned intimately and new effects are awarded on cortical association in reptiles, birds, marsupials, monotremes and different species.
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Additional resources for Evolutionary Developmental Biology of the Cerebral Cortex
Nevertheless, the enlargement of cortical surface area or even the differential expansion of the individual areas in themselves are not sufficient to account entirely for the elaboration of cortical connectivity that occurred during evolution. The additional issues, such as the creation of new cortical areas, are discussed by others at this symposium. However, the increase of cortical surface by the introduction of additional radial units, as well as the expansion and elaboration of cytoarchitectonic areas, provides an opportunity for creating novel input/target/output relationships with other structures that, if heritable, may be subject to natural selection.
I was struck by this extraventricular site of cell genesis, and I wondered whether there might be homologies. Karten: Not everyone agrees with John Parnavelas' definition of the subventricular zone. Parnavelas: It's not my definition, it's the one given by the Boulder Committee (1970). Rakic: In 1970 in was difficult to ascertain the nature of the subventricular zone, and whether it produces neurons as well as glia. In 1975 we suggested that in THE CEREBELLUM 25 primates it also generates neurons, and in particular the stellate cells destined for the more superficial cortical layers (Rakic 1975).
In birds, although the hemispheres of the cerebellum are poorly developed, the vermal pattern of Zebrin II bands is retained. By contrast, in teleost fish, cerebellar function is parcelled out into different regions. Each region contains Purkinje-like cells, but the Zebrin antibody now stains in an all-or-none fashion. For example, all of the Purkinje cells in the corpus cerebella are Zebrinpositive while all of the cells in the lateral valvula are Zebrin negative. The suggestion is that the cerebellum of birds and mammals evolved by the interdigitation of these initially separate cell groups.
Evolutionary Developmental Biology of the Cerebral Cortex by Novartis Foundation