By Richard I. G. Holt
This ebook is definitely the right source for a direction on endocrinology and diabetes, as a part of USMLE educating, and an on-going better half in the course of postgraduate scientific and medical examine. This textbook goals to bridge the space from easy technological know-how education, via medical education, to the information required for the early postgraduate years and professional education. The textual content is going past middle undergraduate clinical schooling. studying goals, packing containers, and concluding ‘key issues’ goal to stress the most important topics.
The educating type and presentation has been bolstered all through, and comprises studying ambitions and “recap” hyperlinks at first of every bankruptcy that remind the reader of key findings and rules, whereas cross-referencing makes it effortless to find similar details fast and successfully. There also are extra case stories, with targeted solutions utilising idea to practice
The first half strives to create a well informed reader ready for the medical sections.
The moment half keeps a mostly organ-based method. The introductory uncomplicated technological know-how in those chapters goals to be concise but enough to appreciate, diagnose and deal with the linked medical disorders.
The 3rd half on diabetes and weight problems was once totally new within the final version and those chapters have gone through the best swap here.
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Part 1: Foundations of Endocrinology
1 evaluation of endocrinology
2 mobilephone biology and hormone synthesis
three Molecular foundation of hormone action
four Investigations in endocrinology and diabetes
Part 2: Endocrinology -Biology to medical Practice
five The hypothalamus and pituitary gland
6 The adrenal gland
7 Reproductive endocrinology
eight The thyroid gland
nine Calcium and metabolic bone disorders
10 Pancreatic and gastrointestinal endocrinology and endocrine neoplasia
Part three: Diabetes and Obesity
eleven review of diabetes
12 style 1 diabetes
thirteen variety 2 diabetes
14 issues of diabetes
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Additional resources for Essential Endocrinology and Diabetes
Protein (Grb2) can be stimulated independently of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1). MAPK, mitogenactivated protein kinase; PI3 kinase, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase; SoS, son of sevenless protein; I, insulin. 4 Defects in the insulin signalling pathways and ‘insulin resistance’ syndromes Over 50 mutations have been reported in the insulin receptor (IR) that impair glucose metabolism and raise serum insulin (‘insulin resistance’). Historically, these have been discovered as different congenital syndromes; however, the advance of molecular genetics has unified these diagnoses as a phenotypic spectrum according to the severity of IR inactivation.
Activated JAK2 phosphorylates tyrosines on STATs. These form dimers and undergo translocation into the nucleus, where they act as transcriptional regulatory proteins JAK2 binding to 'Box 1'. JAK2 binds to the juxtamembrane region of the intracellular domains of the receptor, known as Box 1 ( ) GH JAK 2 P JAK 2 P P STAT P MAPK P P P P P STAT IRS1/2 P P P P STAT STAT P P PI3 kinase Rapid metabolic effects NUCLEUS: MAPK pathway. g. SRE, c-fos) PI3 kinase pathway. 8 Growth hormone (GH) receptor and its signalling pathways.
Making a hormone derived from amino acids or cholesterol In addition to peptides or proteins, hormones can also be synthesized by sequential enzymatic modification of the amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan, or of cholesterol. 1). 4 Post-translational modifications of peptide hormones. Four types are shown. g. g. growth hormone). g. proopiomelanocortin can give rise to adrenocorticotrophic hormone plus melanocytestimulating hormone and β-endorphin). (c) Synthesis of insulin requires folding of the peptide and the formation of disulphide bonds.
Essential Endocrinology and Diabetes by Richard I. G. Holt