By Léandre G. Pourcelot (auth.), Bruno D. Fornage M.D. (eds.)
Following the advance of gray-scale imaging, real-time scanning, Doppler exam, and high-frequency sonography, endosonography is among the most up-to-date significant breakthroughs within the background of diagnostic ultrasound. even though early makes an attempt at putting ultrasound transducers in traditional cavities of the physique could be traced again greater than twenty years, in basic terms long ago few years has expertise allowed the advance and commercialization of potent, easy-to-use endosono scopic probes. as the transducer should be put in direct touch with or as regards to lesions, excessive frequencies (up to ~2 MHz) can be utilized, yielding cross-sectional photos of unsurpassed answer. the provision of in particular designed intracorporeal probes for particular typical cavities which are repeatedly explored by means of traditional (optical) endoscopy or palpation has considerably multiplied the diagnostic functions of sonography. Transrectal and transvaginal examinations at the moment are played regularly in lots of associations, and nearly all sonographic gear manufac turers have of their line of goods at the very least one endorectal and one endovaginal transducer. such a lot endosonoscopic probes connect with latest scanners, and for radiology departments, the make investments ment for transrectal or transvaginal scanning will often be restricted to the acquisition of the explicit probe. during this ebook, scientific functions of endosonography (excluding transesophageal echocardio graphy) are lined by means of eu and North American specialists. present gear and strategies of exam are defined intimately to aid novices start within the box of endosonography.
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Gordon S. , Goldberg B. : Sonographic examination of the mediastinum and upper abdomen by fiberoptic gastroscope. Radiology, 1984, 151, 175180. 9. Bruni H. : Carcinoma of the esophagus and cardia. Diagnostic evaluation in 113 cases. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. , 1975,70,367-370. 10. , Gn5tillat P. : Evaluation of specific value of endoscopic biopsies and brush cytology for malignancies of the esophagus and stomach. Gut, 1976, 17,375-377. 11. Moss A. , Margulis A. R: Esophageal carcinoma: Pretherapy staging by computed tomography.
Longitudinal endorectal sonograms of the rectum. (a) Sonogram made using a water-distended balloon. (b) Sonogram made with a water enema and without the balloon. The first, echogenic layer (arrow) is much less prominent and a Houston's valve is visualized. B = bladder; HV = Houston's valve; Pr = prostate; R = rectal lumen; SV = seminal vesicle. 6. Longitudinal sonograms of the rectal wall made using a linear-array transducer. (a) In vivo sonogram. (b) In vitro sonogram. Note the subdivision of the muscular coat into two hypoechoic layers separated by a thin echogenic line.
4. Transverse scans showing distinct layers in the esophageal wall. (a) The layers are best demonstrated where the wall is least compressed by the balloon surrounding the transducer (arrow). (b) Layers (arrow) are more conspicuous at the gastroesophageal junction. b Esophageal carcinoma Barium studies are routinely used. Doublecontrast imaging is required to detect subtle superficial lesions. Fiberoptic endoscopy allows direct visualization of the lesion and the performance of forceps biopsy or brush cytologic study.
Endosonography by Léandre G. Pourcelot (auth.), Bruno D. Fornage M.D. (eds.)