By C. Mitcham
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of science, technology and ethics [Vol 1 A-C]
Bijker, Thomas P. Hughes, and Trevor J. Pinch. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Searle, John R. (2001). Rationality in Action. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. RESEARCH ETHICS, ENGINEERING ETHICS, AND SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY STUDIES RONALD R. KLINE The fields of research ethics and engineering ethics, as well as programs in science, technology, and society, were established in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s amid concerns about fraud in science, engineering-management disasters such as the Ford Pinto gas tank explosions, the role of technologies such as Agent Orange in fighting an unpopular Vietnam War, and environmental degradation.
By ‘‘practice,’’ Whitbeck means activities other than research, that is, the development, design, testing, and selling of structures and consumer products. The journal Science and Engineering Ethics, established in 1995, publishes articles that mainly discuss ethics in science or in engineering. Only a few are on matters relating to both science and engineering. S. National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine, published a little booklet on research ethics entitled On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research, the second edition of which appeared in 1995.
The production of engineering knowledge is usually seen as unproblematic, as are conceptions of risk and safety. The textbook by Mike W. Martin, a philosopher, and Roland Schinzinger, an engineer, is better in some of these respects. It discusses different perceptions of risk and safety, as well as work relations in corporations—under the rubric of rights of engineers in the workplace—and proposes the idea that engineering is a social experiment (Martin and Schinzinger 1996). That idea resonates well with literature in the history and sociology of engineering and technology, but those fields are underutilized in engineering ethics literature.
Encyclopedia of science, technology and ethics [Vol 1 A-C] by C. Mitcham