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New PDF release: Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, 3e,

By Robert Allen Meyers

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By considering equilibrium with an ideal vapor phase, it may be shown that the Fickian diffusivity (D) and the thermodynamic mobility (B) are related by: J = −Bc d ln a d ln p = D0 (9) d ln c d ln c where c is the absorbed phase concentration, p the partial pressure, and the limiting diffusivity D0 = BRT . It is evident that for an ideal system (activity proportional to concentration) Eq. (9) reduces to the Fickian formulation with D = D0 . However, for a nonideal system the factor D = BRT d ln p/d ln c may be very different from unity.

In addition one may write a differential heat balance for a column element, which has the same general form as Eq. (17), and a heat balance for heat transfer between particle and fluid. In a nonisothermal system the heat and mass balance equations are therefore coupled through the temperature dependence of the rate of adsorption and the adsorption equilibrium, as expressed in Eq. (18). Solving this set of equations is a difficult task, and some simplification is therefore generally needed. Some of the simplified systems for which more or less rigorous solutions have been obtained are summarized below.

V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. Forces of Adsorption General Applications Microporous Adsorbents Adsorption Equilibrium Adsorption Kinetics Adsorption Column Dynamics Cyclic Batch Adsorption Processes Chromatographic Processes Continuous Countercurrent Processes GLOSSARY Breakthrough curve Plot showing variation of outlet concentration of one (or more) of the adsorbable species with time. 0-A ameter) with a very narrow distribution of pore size. Extract Product stream containing the more strongly adsorbed species.

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Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, 3e, Chemical Engineering by Robert Allen Meyers

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