By Hari Singh Nalwa, Foreword by Richard E. Smalley
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Volume 2
Lennox et al. . proposed a desirable approach that involved blending premade nanoparticles into a presynthesized polymer matrix. Coating gold nanoparticles ﬁrst with a polymer ligand chemically similar to the polymer matrix made mixing of the gold nanoparticles with the polymeric matrix thermodynamically more favorable and thus more compatible as compared to coatings with polymer ligands that were chemically different from the matrix . The surfaces of gold nanoparticles were decorated with covalently bound thiol-capped polystyrene macromolecules (PS–SH) and these were dispersed in a PS matrix.
The interaction of alkanethiols with the gold nanoparticle surface causes the thiol molecules self-assemble in a well ordered, densely packed manner on the nanoparticle surface (similar to SAMs on ﬂat substrates). Common precursors of these SAMs are aliphatic thiols with the structure of HS–(CH2 n R, where the functional group, R, stands for a variety of functionalities [172–181]. In principle, these groups can allow for further functionalization of the gold nanoparticles with ligands, proteins, and other biomolecules.
Although these results are promising, more research has to be done in order Colloidal Gold to understand the mechanisms of the formation of gold nanoparticles. Braun et al.  have also demonstrated that gold nanoclusters can be formed on speciﬁc surface sites of protein molecules in analogy to thin ﬁlm formation of noble metals on inorganic substrates. In the early stages of thin ﬁlm growth during vacuum deposition, metals ﬁrst form nanometer size clusters or islands on the substrate if the condensing atoms are more strongly bound to each other than to the substrate (Volmer–Weber mode) .
Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Volume 2 by Hari Singh Nalwa, Foreword by Richard E. Smalley