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Read e-book online Encyclopedia of Energy Volume IV (Encyclopedia of Energy PDF

By Robert U Ayres, Robert Costanza, Jose Goldemberg, Marija D Ilic, Eberhard Jochem, Robert Kaufmann, Amory B Lovins, Mohan Munasinghe, R K Pachauri, Claudia Sheinbaum Pardo, Per Peterson, Lee Schipper, Margaret Slade, Vaclav Smil, Ernst Worrell, Cutler J. C

ISBN-10: 0471544582

ISBN-13: 9780471544586

This award-winning, four-volume set examines the impression of strength creation applied sciences at the atmosphere. In 235 articles, the A-to-Z paintings covers such subject matters as acid rain, pollution, plane gasoline, development structures coal combustion, laptop functions for strength effective platforms, threat review, sunlight heating, waste administration making plans, water energy, and more.
This first within the Wiley Encyclopedia sequence in Environmental technology, this worthwhile source good points huge representation, photos, tables, and a listing of environmental and conversion corporations.

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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Energy Volume IV (Encyclopedia of Energy Series)

Sample text

Although many of the advantages are potentially related to reduced competition and lower predation rates, some of the justification discovered by investigators of the phenomenon has involved energy acquisition and use. Without doubt, natural selection favors animals that minimize energy expenditure during migration, either to increase their potential range over barren habitat or to reduce the amount of foraging necessary after shorter trips. Although we often think of poikilotherms (coldblooded animals) as lethargic organisms less active than homeotherms (warm-blooded), it is significant that migration is fairly common in both groups.

Terrestrial, short-range migrants either make very short trips, after which they feed for a few days, or feed as they go, stopping only during part of the day. In both instances, they have relatively small energy depots in comparison with long-range migrants. In some cases, the temporal pattern of energy storage differs between spring and autumn migration. The difference may be a response to availability of food resources but also may be due to the benefits of precise timing of migrants traveling to breeding sites.

In this framework, an energy price increase can be either the motivation for, or the result of, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. For example, governments may impose emissions taxes to motivate GHG reductions. Emissions taxes increase the costs of fuels directly, and economies will adjust to reduce the use of those higher cost fuels, substituting goods and services that result in fewer GHG emissions. On the other hand, governments may cap the total amount of emissions, distribute or sell emissions ‘‘allowances,’’ and let the market determine the price and distribution of these allowances.

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Encyclopedia of Energy Volume IV (Encyclopedia of Energy Series) by Robert U Ayres, Robert Costanza, Jose Goldemberg, Marija D Ilic, Eberhard Jochem, Robert Kaufmann, Amory B Lovins, Mohan Munasinghe, R K Pachauri, Claudia Sheinbaum Pardo, Per Peterson, Lee Schipper, Margaret Slade, Vaclav Smil, Ernst Worrell, Cutler J. C


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