By Robert U Ayres, Robert Costanza, Jose Goldemberg, Marija D Ilic, Eberhard Jochem, Robert Kaufmann, Amory B Lovins, Mohan Munasinghe, R K Pachauri, Claudia Sheinbaum Pardo, Per Peterson, Lee Schipper, Margaret Slade, Vaclav Smil, Ernst Worrell, Cutler J. C
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Further, the impact of any efficiency improvements is diminished by fuel wasted in airborne or ground travel delays or in flying partially empty aircraft. Perhaps most importantly, we do not know the cost of change. In this section, some industry characteristics and the economic impact of introducing energy-saving aircraft technologies are examined. The lag in technology introduction is apparent in Fig. 2. S. fleet to achieve the same fuel efficiency as that of newly introduced aircraft. Apart from in-use aircraft performance improvements, the rate of improvement in the average EI is determined by the gradual adoption of new, more fuel-efficient aircraft into the existing fleet.
In the London smog episode, stagnant air accumulated such extremely high sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid concentrations of approximately 1900 and 1600 mg mÀ3, respectively—some 20 times the current health limit—that 4000 inhabitants died as a result. The main causes were the emissions from coal stoves used for heating and the fact that all emissions were trapped in a layer of air probably only a few hundred meters high, with no exchange of air within the city. During the second half of the 20th century, the effects of air pollution due to energy use and production were detected on regional (4500 km), continental, and even global scales.
Cottrell, W. F. (1955). ’’ McGraw-Hill, New York. Darwin, R. F. (1992). Natural resources and the Marshallian effects of input-reducing technological changes. J. Environ. Econ. Environ. Management 23, 201–215. , and Vorosmarty, C. (1986). ’’ Ballinger, Cambridge, UK. Hall, C. A. , Cleveland, C. , and Kaufmann, R. K. (1986). ’’ Wiley Interscience, New York. Hamilton, J. D. (1983). Oil and the macroeconomy since World War II. J. Political Econ. 91, 228–248. Kaufmann, R. K. (1992). A biophysical analysis of the energy/real GDP ratio: Implications for substitution and technical change.
Encyclopedia of Energy (Encyclopedia of Energy Series) by Robert U Ayres, Robert Costanza, Jose Goldemberg, Marija D Ilic, Eberhard Jochem, Robert Kaufmann, Amory B Lovins, Mohan Munasinghe, R K Pachauri, Claudia Sheinbaum Pardo, Per Peterson, Lee Schipper, Margaret Slade, Vaclav Smil, Ernst Worrell, Cutler J. C