By Kevin Shillington
The Encyclopedia of African background comprises round 1,000 entries protecting the widest manageable variety of issues in African historical past. It covers the total continent of Africa-- not only sub-Saharan--from earliest occasions to the current. the choice of entries contains not just well-established subject matters, but in addition seems to be on the social, fiscal, linguistic, anthropological, and political topics which are presently being re-evaluated or newly unfolded for historic research by way of fresh study and ebook. it's an updated paintings of reference for all people who are eager about educating, learning, or learning Africa and its heritage, in addition to the intense common reader. the 2 volumes additionally include illustrations, maps, and acceptable indexes.
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In 1832, his father Muhyi al-Din ibn Mustafa al-Hasani al-Jaza’iri, the head of a Sufi brotherhood, engineered the election of his son to take his place as head of the brotherhood. Al-Qadir led military campaigns in France, resulting in treaties in ‘Abouh, Muhammad Egyptian Scholar and Reformer Muhammad ‘Abouh (1849–1905) is regarded as the most important and influential proponent of Islamic modernism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. qxd 9/24/04 1:11 PM Page 6 ‘ABOUH, MUHAMMAD During the course of his student days at al-Azhar, ‘Abouh came into contact with Jamal al-Din alAfghani (1839–1897), a Persian who advocated a program of Muslim self-strengthening based on Muslim political unification and religious reform.
The brand of Islam preached by ibn Yasin was based on a strict application of Qur’anic injunctions and a literal interpretation of the sacred text. Among the first measures he adopted after settling among the Sanhaja were the imposition of Islamic law (Shari’a) in all spheres of life, the introduction of a public treasury, and the levying of the tithe (‘ushr). He also adopted Malikism as the officially-endorsed legal practice. Ibn Yasin adhered to a rigorous spiritual code dominated by asceticism and self-discipline and demanded absolute obedience from his followers, the growing religious community later known as the Almoravids.
Some scholars, however, dispute this interpretation and claim that the term murabit does not refer to the legendary island retreat founded by ibn Yasin according to some sources. qxd 9/24/04 1:11 PM Page 2 ‘ABD ALLAH IBN YASIN: ALMORAVID: SAHARA coming from Ghana, and virtually the other end of the Saharan trade. Once control of the commercial routes had been consolidated, the Almoravids turned their attention to other areas of southern Morocco with obvious economic appeal: the pastures of the Draa and the Sus valleys.
Encyclopedia of African History by Kevin Shillington