By Robert Elsner
First revealed in 1983, this e-book matters the comparative physiological diversifications of vertebrate animals, particularly mammals, to cessation of respiring. those variations have been initially pointed out in species residing in aquatic habitats. The argument is gifted that the normal divers demonstrate a well-developed and with ease studied instance of a extra basic defence opposed to asphyxia. the subjects thought of contain the diving reaction, metabolic and cardiovascular diversifications, adaptations in resistance to asphyxia, neural keep watch over mechanisms, which govern the breathing and circulatory responses, perinatal asphyxia, purposes to the human species and scientific implications. The book's objective is to acquaint its readers with a few advances as a result of examine during this box.
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Additional resources for Diving and Asphyxia: A Comparative Study of Animals and Man (Monographs of the Physiological Society)
Relative blood oxygen capacity of seals compared to man is indicated. ) 33 Cellular tolerances, adaptations to asphyxia higher than in the manatee Trichechus manatus (Blessing, 1972). Seals, porpoises and manatee all have higher cardiac myoglobin levels than do humans (Blessing & HartschenNiemeyer, 1969; Blessing, 1972). Reference was made earlier (Chapter 1) to the dependence of skeletal muscle in many marine mammals on oxygen derived from myoglobin during aerobic dives. 2. Generally speaking, phocid seals, whose dives are the longest among the pinnipedia, have high values for blood and muscle oxygen stores, while the sea otter, a relatively shallow and brief diver, relies chiefly on lung storage.
It was maintained at 21 Metabolic conservation DIVE 0 SECONDS 10 20 ^ I 30 40 MJN > mm Hg 2 0 0 . "-—S* * sb? i ^^^ ^-^*^ 014 min 0T 20 min Fig. 4. y 1966a). Beginning and end of dives indicated. 22 Blood flow about 80-100 mmHg, a value similar to that of the resting, non-submerged state. Thus mean arterial pressure remained almost unchanged despite the slow heart rate. The energy for maintaining arterial pressure is provided by the stretching of the elastic arterial walls during and immediately following systole and its recoil during diastole.
1966a). Blood flow was measured in the ascending thoracic aorta. As in the sea lion, stroke volume 20 Arterial pressure remained unchanged throughout the dive. High resting values of cardiac output in harbour seals were interpreted by Sinnett, Kooyman & Wahrenbrock (1978) as being consistent with their high metabolic rates. Using a thermal dilution technique, they also showed a one-third reduction in stroke volume during forced dives. Pulmonary blood flow may cease during diastole in such dives (Sinnett, Kooyman & Wahrenbrock, 1978).
Diving and Asphyxia: A Comparative Study of Animals and Man (Monographs of the Physiological Society) by Robert Elsner