By Juan Pablo Borja, Toh-Ming Lu, Joel Plawsky
This publication makes a speciality of the experimental and theoretical points of the time-dependent breakdown of complicated dielectric movies utilized in gigascale electronics. insurance contains crucial failure mechanisms for skinny low-k movies, new and tested experimental suggestions, contemporary advances within the region of dielectric failure, and complex simulations/models to unravel and are expecting dielectric breakdown, all of that are of substantial value for engineers and scientists engaged on constructing and integrating current and destiny chip architectures. The ebook is particularly designed to help scientists in assessing the reliability and robustness of digital structures making use of low-k dielectric fabrics resembling nano-porous movies. equally, the versions awarded the following may also help to enhance present methodologies for estimating the failure of gigascale electronics at equipment working stipulations from speeded up lab try out stipulations. quite a few graphs, tables, and illustrations are integrated to facilitate realizing of the themes. Readers should be in a position to comprehend dielectric breakdown in skinny movies in addition to the most failure modes and characterization concepts. additionally, they're going to achieve services on traditional in addition to new box acceleration attempt versions for predicting long-term dielectric degradation.
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Extra resources for Dielectric Breakdown in Gigascale Electronics: Time Dependent Failure Mechanisms
1). Failure for a ramped voltage test is determined by a drastic increase in leakage current, while failure in ramped current tests is reached when there is a sudden decrease in the voltage profile. 2 shows experimental diagrams for ramped stress tests (Wolters 1999). V app ¼ R Á t & I ¼ R Á t: ð4:1Þ Ramped voltage stress (RVS) experiments have been used in the past to characterize intrinsic failure in gate dielectrics. Some of the early work to characterize breakdown voltages (VBD) was performed by Fritzsche (1967) and later by Osburn and Ormond (1972) and Osburn and Weitzman (1972).
2 Â 10À19 m2/s, α ¼ 2 Â 10À44 Jm3, L ¼ 200 nm (Borja et al. 2013) Fig. 11 Simulation for Cu concentration at cathode during BTS for bipolar field at various frequencies. 2 Â 10À19 m2/s, α ¼ 2 Â 10À44 Jm3 (Borja et al. 2012) In the limit of very fast oscillations, Eq. 11) suggests that ionic diffusion will be the main mode of transport for accumulation of Cu across the low-κ film. 2 Metal Ion-Catalyzed Dielectric Failure 51 Fig. 12 Simulation for Cu depth profile near cathode for thermal stress and fast alternating bipolar applied fields.
Here, one can identify accumulation, depletion, and inversion regions. Sze (2006) explains that the accumulation region refers to the buildup of holes near the dielectric–semiconductor interface for a negative applied potential. When a small positive potential is applied to an MIS device, the energy bands near the semiconductor surface are bent downward allowing majority carriers such as holes to be depleted. This effect is termed depletion. A large applied positive potential enhances the deformation of energy bands allowing excess flow of negative carriers at the dielectric/Si interface.
Dielectric Breakdown in Gigascale Electronics: Time Dependent Failure Mechanisms by Juan Pablo Borja, Toh-Ming Lu, Joel Plawsky