By Bernard L. Horecker, Earl R. Stadtman
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Additional info for Current topics in cellular regulation Vol. 1
4D), the concentration of the substrate for this reaction would tend to rise without limit (curve a ) . This situation would be potentially catastrophic. Of course, no metabolite concentration would be expected in fact to reach extremely high levels. Two types of factors would operate to limit the concentration actually attained. As the concentration rises, the reverse reaction may become significant; thus simple mass action or equilibrium considerations may limit the concentration of the intermediate and the maximal rate at which the sequence can operate.
B The values are expressed as micromoles per gram of liver, means and standard error of the mean (4 observations). the alcohol dehydrogenase system. The rate of the second step depends on the concentration of acetaldehyde determined by the first step. This first step is therefore the rate-limiting factor in the removal of ethanol. IV. Extrahepatic Ketogenesis A third example illustrating the importance of equilibrium reactions concerns extrahepatic ketogenesis. It has been known for some time that tissues other than liver, especially kidney cortex and cardiac muscle, can form ketone bodies (7, 8, 13, 19, 30, 31), though the liver is by far the most important site of ketogenesis.
Even greater differences in the [lactate] : [pyruvate] ratio can be pro duced experimentally with mouse liver slices (19a) and with kidney cortex slices (18a) without affecting the rates of gluconeogenesis. Further evidence that the concentration of pyruvate is the crucial factor is pro vided by the fact that the inhibition of gluconeogenesis by ethanol can in part be overcome by a high lactate concentration, which raises the pyruvate concentration (18). The concentration of pyruvate, as established by the equilibrium in the lactate dehydrogenase system, also determines the extent of EQUILIBRIA IN METABOLIC REGULATION 49 the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction in the liver or kidney.
Current topics in cellular regulation Vol. 1 by Bernard L. Horecker, Earl R. Stadtman