By Jack W. Brehm (auth.), Gifford Weary Ph.D., Faith Gleicher Ph.D., Kerry L. Marsh Ph.D. (eds.)
Over the earlier twenty years theorists and researchers have given expanding awareness to the consequences, either useful and damaging, of assorted regulate comparable motivations and ideology. People's notions of the way a lot own keep watch over they've got or wish to have over very important occasions of their lives were used to provide an explanation for a bunch of functionality and adaptational results, together with motivational and function deficits linked to realized helplessness (Abramson, Seligman, & Teasdale, 1978) and melancholy (Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989), edition to getting older (Baltes & Baltes, 1986; Rodin, 1986), heart problems (Matthews, 1982), melanoma (Sklar & Anisman, 1979), elevated stories of actual indicators (Pennebaker, 1982), better studying (Savage, Perlmutter, & Monty, 1979), achievement-related behaviors (Dweck & Licht, 1980; Ryckman, 1979), and submit abortion adjustment (Mueller & significant, 1989). The proposal that keep watch over motivation performs a basic position in quite a few uncomplicated, social mental techniques additionally has a protracted historic culture. a few theorists (Heider, 1958; Jones & Davis, 1965; Kelley, 1967), for instance, have advised that causal inferences come up from a wish to render the social international predictable and controllable. equally, keep an eye on has been implicated as a massive mediator of cognitive dissonance (Wicklund & Brehm, 1976) and perspective phenomena (Brehm & Brehm, 1981; Kiesler, Collins, & Miller, 1969). regardless of the obvious centrality of keep watch over motivation to quite a few social mental phenomena, till lately there was quite little study explicitly serious about the consequences of regulate motivation at the cognitive procedures underlying such phenomena (cf.
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There is at least some evidence that feelings of depression occur not from helplessness per se but require the prior expectation of success. 1 However, little attention seems to have been paid to this "hidden" variable. It is the prior expectation of success, however, that made reactance theory relevant (Wortman & Brehm, 1975). The prior expectancy of success at the task implies the freedom to do the task. That is why the initial response to the LH treatment was hypothesized to involve reactance.
So how can we be sure that the negative response to the influence attempt is an effort to restore freedom? The solution to this problem in the Worchel and Brehm studies was to have the experimenter or a confederate acting as another ostensible subject restore the actual subject's freedom either directly or by implication. In either case, once the freedom has been restored, the subject can take or leave the freedom threatener's influence attempt. In fact, what happened was that subjects were favorably impressed with the freedom threatener's opinion about which task the group should work on, and about two thirds of them accepted his recommendation!
Test anxiety and direction of attention. Psychological Bulletin, 76,92-104. H. J. (1981). Effects of exposure to uncontrollable events as a function of achievement motivation and initial expectation of success. Motivation and Emotion, 5, 235-248. Worchel, S. W. (1971). Direct and implied social restoration of freedom. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18, 294-304. B. (1975). Some determinants of perceived control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31,282-294. B. W. (1975).
Control Motivation and Social Cognition by Jack W. Brehm (auth.), Gifford Weary Ph.D., Faith Gleicher Ph.D., Kerry L. Marsh Ph.D. (eds.)