By Augustine of Hippo
De Civitate Dei, (full name: De Civitate Dei contra Paganos), recognized in English as: the town of God [against the Pagans] is a ebook written in Latin by way of Augustine of Hippo within the early fifth century advert, facing matters pertaining to God, martyrdom, Jews, and different features of Christian philosophy. town of God is one among Augustine's significant works, a designation that incorporates The Confessions, On Christian Doctrine, and at the Trinity. Augustine is the main influential Father of the Church within the West and during Western Christianity the town of God profoundly formed Western civilization.
Augustine wrote the treatise to provide an explanation for Christianity's dating with competing religions and philosophies, and to the Roman govt with which it was once more and more intertwined. It was once written quickly after Rome used to be sacked via the Visigoths in 410. This occasion left Romans in a deep country of concern, and plenty of observed it as punishment for leaving behind conventional Roman faith for Catholic Christianity. It used to be during this surroundings that Augustine got down to console Christians, writing that, whether the earthly rule of the empire was once imperiled, it was once the town of God that may finally triumph — Augustine's eyes have been fastened on Heaven, a subject matter of many Christian works of past due Antiquity.
Despite Christianity's designation because the professional faith of the empire, Augustine declared its message to be non secular instead of political. Christianity, he argued, could be involved in the magical, heavenly urban the recent Jerusalem — instead of with earthly politics.
The ebook provides human heritage as being a clash among what Augustine calls town of guy and town of God (a clash that's destined to finish in victory of the latter). the town of God is marked by way of those that forgot earthly excitement to devote themselves to the everlasting truths of Christian religion. the town of guy, however, involves those that have immersed themselves within the cares and pleasures of the current, passing global. the 2 towns will not be intended to symbolize any real locations or firms, although Augustine basically concept that the Catholic Church used to be on the center of the town of God.
City of God is a spiraling and rambling paintings, yet at the very least to Augustine, there has been an overriding constitution to the entire. He offers, in his later years, a quick description of the contents of the work:
However, this nice venture was once eventually accomplished in twenty-two books. of those, the 1st 5 refute those that fancy that the polytheistic worship is important so as to safe worldly prosperity, and that every one those overwhelming calamities have befallen us as a result of its prohibition. within the following 5 books I tackle myself to people who admit that such calamities have continually attended, and may always attend, the human race, and they continuously recur in kinds kind of disastrous, various in basic terms within the scenes, events, and folks on whom they gentle, yet, whereas admitting this, keep that the worship of the gods is helpful for the existence to come back. yet that not anyone may have social gathering to claim, that notwithstanding I had refuted the tenets of alternative males, I had passed over to set up my very own, I dedicate to this item the second one a part of this paintings, which contains twelve books, even if i haven't scrupled, as social gathering provided, both to boost my very own reviews within the first ten books, or to demolish the arguments of my competitors within the final twelve. of those twelve books, the 1st 4 include an account of the starting place of those cities—the urban of God, and town of the realm. the second one 4 deal with in their background or growth; the 3rd and final 4, in their deserved destinies.
In different phrases, town of God may be principally divided into elements. half I, which includes Books I-X, is essentially polemical popular and is dedicated basically to a critique of Roman cultures and mores (Books I-V) and of pagan philosophy (Books VI-X). Interpreters frequently take those first ten books to correspond with the Earthly urban, in contradistinction to to urban of God mentioned partially II, which contains the rest twelve books. half II is the place Augustine shifts gears from feedback to positing a coherent account of the connection among the town of God and a secular urban safely subordinated to it.
As indicated within the above passage from the Retractions, town of God should be additional subdivided into the next parts:
PART I (Books I-X):
a) Books I-V: feedback of Rome
b) Books VI-X: feedback of pagan philosophy
Part II (Books XI-XXII):
c) Books XI-XIV: the origins of the 2 cities
d) Books XV-XVIII: their background or progress
e) Books XIX-XXII: their deserved destinites
This is a whole model of the ebook - It's 818 pages as a PDF - unabridged.
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Additional info for City of God
Chapter 36: What Subjects are to Be Handled in the Following Discourse. But I have still some things to say in confutation of those who refer the disasters of the Roman republic to our religion, because it prohibits the offering of sacrifices to the gods. For this end I must recount all, or as many as may seem sufficient, of the disasters which befell that city and its subject provinces, before these sacrifices were prohibited; for all these disasters they would doubtless have attributed to us, if at that time our religion had shed its light upon them, and had prohibited their sacrifices.
But the Greeks, as I said, though not so moral, were more logical in allowing this license which the Romans forbade; for they saw that their gods approved and enjoyed the scurrilous language of low comedy when directed not only against men, but even against themselves; and this, whether the infamous actions imputed to them were the fictions of poets, or were their actual iniquities commemorated and acted in the theatres. And would that the spectators had judged them worthy only of laughter, and not of imitation!
In truth, Rome, which was founded and increased by the labors of these ancient heroes, was more shamefully ruined by their descendants, while its walls were still standing, than it is now by the razing of them. For in this ruin there fell stones and timbers; but in the ruin those profligates effected, there fell, not the mural, but the moral bulwarks and ornaments of the city, and their hearts burned with passions more destructive than the flames which consumed their houses. Thus I brought my first book to a close.
City of God by Augustine of Hippo