By Barbara J. Clark, Douglas M. Stocco
Non-vesicular intracellular ldl cholesterol delivery is a vital mechanism for holding membrane ldl cholesterol homeostasis. fresh reviews of experiences directed at soluble ldl cholesterol delivery proteins point out that aberrant expression of the beginning proteins might give a contribution to disorder states linked to issues in ldl cholesterol homeostasis. this is often an exhilarating new path within the box and the aim of this booklet may be to focus on the present learn directed at power roles for the beginning relations in diabetes, melanoma and atherogenesis.
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Extra resources for Cholesterol Transporters of the START Domain Protein Family in Health and Disease: START Proteins - Structure and Function
Last, but certainly not the least, I would like to acknowledge the support of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) of the NIH and the Robert A. Welch Foundation for making this work possible. StAR (STARD1) Overview Over a 20-year span (1994–2014), the biochemical and genetic data on StAR has confirmed its essential role in cholesterol transfer into mitochondria and in controlling steroidogenesis (reviewed in ). Of particular importance was the finding that mutations in the hSTARD1 gene are the most common basis for lipoid CAH, as discussed above [55, 61].
First, a general overview for transcription initiation and hormonal regulation of steroidogenesis is provided to set the context for StAR regulation. Basic Mechanisms for Transcription Initiation A gene that is transcribed by RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) has distinctive functional elements that are required to initiate and enhance transcription. The promoter region of a gene contains sequence-specific cis-acting DNA elements, or regulatory elements, that are recognized and bound by trans-acting DNA-binding proteins (transcription factors) required to initiate transcription.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1965;53:1443–50. 2 The Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein (StAR) 39 10. Davis WW, Garren LD. Evidence for the stimulation by adenocorticotropic hormone of the conversion of cholesterol esters to cholesterol in the adrenal, in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1966;24:805–10. 11. Davis WW, Garren LD. On the mechanism of action of adrenocorticotropic hormone. The inhibitory site of cycloheximide in the pathway of steroid biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 1968;243:5153–7. 12.
Cholesterol Transporters of the START Domain Protein Family in Health and Disease: START Proteins - Structure and Function by Barbara J. Clark, Douglas M. Stocco