By Seth C. Rasmussen
Chemistry is in detail inquisitive about the advance of the oldest identified civilizations, leading to a number chemical applied sciences that not just stay a part of glossy civilized societies, yet are so standard that it'd be challenging to visualize lifestyles with out them. Such chemical know-how has a truly lengthy and wealthy background, every so often courting again to as early as 20,000 BCE.
"Chemistry expertise in Antiquity" goals to offer the invention, improvement, and early background of quite a number such chemical applied sciences, with the further target of together with a few smaller topics frequently overlooked within the presentation of early chemical expertise. whereas the booklet doesn't goal to be a accomplished assurance of the entire variety of chemical applied sciences practiced in the course of antiquity, it offers a consider and appreciation for either the deep historical past concerned with those themes, in addition to the complexity of the chemical tactics that have been being applied at this kind of very early time period.
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Extra resources for Chemical technology in antiquity
Little is known of his life. His major work, De Architectura (40), consists of ten books on all aspects of architecture including city planning. Although Book II contains some information on brick, sand, lime, and stone, it is Book VII that contains most of the material of interest to chemists regarding colored materials. In it he discusses substances such as cinnabar, quicksilver, natural and artificial colors, burnt ochre, blue, white lead, verdigris, purple, and color substitutes. Dioscorides (40-90 CE) Dioscorides (full name: Pedanius Dioscorides) lived at the time of the Emperors Nero and Vespasian.
Vermilion and Cinnabar Since the names of this priceless red pigment from antiquity have often caused confusion, it is well to define them at the beginning. Both are mercury(II) sulfide, HgS. The term vermilion is the standard name for the synthetic variety, prepared for use as an artists’ pigment from the 8th century CE on. The term cinnabar, which is reserved for the natural mineral and its specific crystal structure, is used by mineralogists and crystallographers (85). The origins of these names deserve some explanation (86): 43 In Chemical Technology in Antiquity; Rasmussen; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2015.
The two outer layers can slide by one another lubricated by the water layer, much as playing cards can slip by one another. This allows the pigment to be easily applied to any surface. Figure 8. Layers of Kaolinite. Lead White Lead white (sometimes called white lead) is the most important of the leadbased pigments and one of the first to be synthesized artificially. It is a basic lead carbonate with the formula 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2. Its naturally occurring form is lead carbonate, PbCO3, corresponding to the mineral cerussite, which has rarely been used as a pigment.
Chemical technology in antiquity by Seth C. Rasmussen