By Théodore de Saussure, Jane F. Hill
Recherches Chimiques sur los angeles Végétation was once a seminal paintings within the improvement of the certainty of photosythesis and plant chemistry. the unique e-book, which was once the 1st concise summation of the fundamentals of plant meals, used to be a landmark in plant technological know-how. It used to be two times translated into German throughout the 19th century, yet no English translation has been released. This translation will curiosity these within the plant, chemical, agricultural, and soil sciences, and the background of technological know-how, who locate English extra available than French or German and who desire to examine extra in regards to the early study on photosynthesis and plant technological know-how.
Nicholas-Théodore de Saussure, a Swiss plant physiologist and plant chemist, was once the final of the early pioneers of photosynthesis examine. This preliminary interval of analysis is mostly thought of to have all started with Jan van Helmont within the early 17th century and Stephen Hales within the first a part of the eighteenth, then to became extra excessive with Joseph Priestley, Jan Ingen-Housz, and Jean Senebier in the course of the clinical Revolution of the mid-to-late eighteenth century. Nicholas-Théodore’s father, the recognized Swiss geologist, meteorologist, and Alpine explorer Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, have been an early convert to the recent chemical theories pioneered via Antoine Lavoisier within the overdue eighteenth century. Nicholas-Théodore, more youthful than his predecessors, had the whole benefit of this new technique, which under pressure quantitative chemical tools. utilising those tips on how to crops, Nicholas-Théodore de Saussure played experiments that led him to significant insights into plant foodstuff. His most crucial contributions have been the demonstration that water is an element of plant dry subject; that vegetation receive their carbon from the carbon dioxide of the air, no longer from carbonic acid dissolved within the soil water, as so much of his contemporaries believed; and that mineral parts and nitrogen from the soil are necessary to plant progress. additional, he verified the vital truth of plant breathing (the absorption of oxygen and emission of carbon dioxide); and photosynthesis (the decomposition of carbon dioxide and evolution of oxygen within the light). In Recherches Chimiques sur l. a. Végétation, de Saussure synthesized his personal learn findings with these of his predecessors, generating a pioneering paintings on plant food.
within the centuries for the reason that Recherches Chimiques sur l. a. Végétation used to be released, luminaries in numerous branches of technological know-how, together with plant biology, chemistry, and soil technology, have constantly praised it hugely. within the 19th century, famous botanist Alphonse de Candolle and both famous plant physiologist Julius von Sachs expressed nice admiration for it. even supposing de Saussure’s principles have been forgotten for a time, famed chemist Justus von Liebig, who invented synthetic fertilizer, rediscovered them within the 1840s and taken them to the eye of the rural group, stressing their value for expanding crop yields.
within the 20th century, eminent photosynthesis researcher Eugene Rabinowitch defined Recherches Chimiques sur los angeles Végétation because the first glossy publication on plant nutrients. Historian of chemistry Henry Leicester known as the ebook a vintage, noting that the 1st vital generalization approximately biochemistry within the 19th century got here from it. Plant physiologist P. E. Pilet said that the e-book laid the principles of a brand new technology, phytochemistry. Soil scientist E. Walter Russell attributed to de Saussure the quantitative experimental procedure, which greater than anything made sleek agricultural chemistry attainable. Chemist Leonard ok. Nash acknowledged that de Saussure introduced the reports of plant food started via Priestley, Ingen-Housz, and Senebier just about of entirety, completing the elemental experimental paintings and offering a resounding theoretical interpretation of the sector, and likewise unfolded new vistas of test and inspiration.
A extra word in regards to the translation: This undertaking is greater than only a translation since it comprises an in depth creation in addition to notes that supply motives for archaic terminology and different history fabric.
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Extra resources for Chemical Research on Plant Growth: A translation of Theodore de Saussure's Recherches chimiques sur la Vegetation
Journal de physique, de chimie, d’histoire naturelle et des arts 46:191–198 de Saussure (“le fils”) (Théodore) (1799) Recherches sur l’influence du gaz oxygène sur la germination des graines. Journal de physique, de chimie, d’histoire naturelle et des arts 49:92–98 de Saussure T (1800a) Voyage à Paris 1 mars 1800–4 juin 1800. Demarches en vue de sa nomination comme professeur à l’Académie de Genève. Bibliothèque de Genève (formerly Bibliothèque Publique et Universitaire de Genève), Archives Saussure, drawer 157 de Saussure (“le fils”) (Théodore) (1800b) De l’influence du sol sur quelques parties constituantes des végétaux.
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Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 68(11):2883–2892 Arnon DI (1991) Photosynthetic electron transport: emergence of a concept, 1949–1959. Photosynth Res 29:117–131 Aulie RP (1970) Boussingault and the nitrogen cycle. Proc Amer Philosoph Soc 114(6):435–479 Badash L (1964) Joseph Priestley’s apparatus for pneumatic chemistry. J Hist Med Allied Sci 19:139–155 Bell MS (2005) Lavoisier in the year one: the birth of a new science in an age of revolution. Norton, New York Benedict FG (1912) The composition of the atmosphere, with special reference to its oxygen content.
Chemical Research on Plant Growth: A translation of Theodore de Saussure's Recherches chimiques sur la Vegetation by Théodore de Saussure, Jane F. Hill