By H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr., L.M. Rasmussen
Is there just one bioethics? Is a world bioethics attainable? Or, in its place, does one come upon a plurality of bioethical ways formed by way of neighborhood cultural and nationwide traditions? a few thirty years in the past a box of utilized ethics emerged less than the rubric `bioethics'. Little inspiration was once given on the time to the prospect that this box bore the imprint of a specific American set of ethical commitments. This quantity explores the plurality of ethical views shaping bioethics. it truly is encouraged via Kazumasa Hoshino's serious reflections at the transformations in ethical views isolating jap and American bioethics. The essays contain contributions from Hong Kong, China, Japan, Texas, the us, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. the quantity bargains a wealthy point of view of the diversity of ways to bioethics. It brings into query even if there's unambiguously one ethics for bioethics to apply.
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Extra resources for Bioethics and Moral Content: National Traditions of Health Care Morality: Papers dedicated in tribute to Kazumasa Hoshino
Until now, "conscientious in medical treatment and miraculously bringing the dying back to life" has been the highest praise for a physician. Confucian ethics of virtue emphasizes that a physician should first have the heart of benevolence and the sense of duty of a noble man. This conception was completely kept even if other ethical values were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. , without the special permission of the patient. On this model, the interests of both sides are considered at the same time.
Some prima facie moral obligations seem so basic and universally shared by the TRANSCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE 51 majority of cultural, ethical and religious traditions, that they need no further argumentation and may be called a priori universal ethics (Sass, 1994). From the perspective of European philosophy and moral reasoning, I will discuss several aspects of universal ethics in more detail: (1) arguments supporting visions of universally shared basic principles of ethics, (2) value conflicts between universal ethics and moral traditions, (3) the relationship of universal ethics to communitarian values, human rights and civil rights, (4) conflicts between individual criteria and quality standards or objective norms, (5) the organ transplantation controversy, (6) the design of an ethically acceptable model of human genotyping, and (7) the role of education, cultural diversity, creativity, and the dignity of the individual's conscience as prime factors for the establishment and protection of human dignity, rights, obligations, and networks of moral communities.
However, there can be no harmonious and fruitful physician-patient relationship if the physician and patient act only on their respective wills without commonly recognized ethical principles, among which the respect for life, I think, is the first. The crisis of the contemporary physician-patient relationship is the crisis of both the traditional beneficence model and the autonomy model, whereas total autonomy is a radical reaction to strong paternalism. Among a number of factors related to the crisis, the most important are the rise of civil rights movements, the marketization of medicine, the specialization of medicine and the wide use of high-tech equipment.
Bioethics and Moral Content: National Traditions of Health Care Morality: Papers dedicated in tribute to Kazumasa Hoshino by H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr., L.M. Rasmussen