By Malcolm David Eckel
Bhaviveka (ca. 500–560 ce) lived at a time of surprising creativity and ferment within the historical past of Indian Buddhist philosophy. The Mahayana stream was once rising as a full of life and self-conscious highbrow strength, whereas the sooner traditions of the eighteen “schools” (nikaya) resisted the authority of the Mahayana and persevered to problematic the elemental suggestions of Buddhist thought.
Bhaviveka’s “Verses at the center of the center method” (Madhyamakahrdayakarika˙) with their statement, referred to as “The Flame of cause” (Tarkajvala), supply a distinct and authoritative account of the highbrow modifications that stirred the Buddhist group during this artistic period.
Bhaviveka and His Buddhist rivals provides a transparent and available translation of Chapters four and five of this article: the chapters at the Sravakas, or eighteen colleges, and the Yogacaras, Bhaviveka’s most vital Mahayana rivals. the interpretation is brought by way of an essay that situates Bhaviveka within the highbrow context of sixth-century India, and it's followed by way of copious notes, commenting on Bhaviveka’s assets and explaining his arguable approach. The booklet additionally incorporates a serious version of the Sanskrit textual content of Bhaviveka’s verses and the Tibetan translation of the verses and statement.
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Extra info for Bhaviveka and His Buddhist Opponents: Chapters 4 and 5 of the verses on the Heart of the Middle Way (Madhyamakahrdayakarikah) with the commentary entitled The Flame of Reason (Tarkajvala)
Aearya). 2 : "The Master says 'so they say' (kila) because he does not agree. "l6 The word "Master" is mirrored by the word "author" (Tib. bstan beos byed pa / Skt. fastrakara) in the commentary on 5 . " David Seyfort Ruegg and others have pointed out that while Sanskrit commentators frequently refer to them selves in the third person, Buddhist authors seldom refer to themselves as "Master," l? leaving us to wonder whether the "Master" is one person and the author of the com mentary is another.
It is possible that this discussion of the Yogacara was the argument that drew Xuanzang to the text, since it gives a preview of the longer argument in chapter 5 of The Heart of the Middle Way. At one point, the text says that a particular argument has already been elucidated at length in the "Introduction to the Ambrosia of Reality," suggesting that The Jewel in the Hand was written between the first three chapters and the full text of The Heart of the Middle Way. 44 In sum, the text functions as a useful point d'appui for study of the Madhyamaka-Yogacara controversy, especially for those who approach the controversy through the medium of Chinese.
The earliest competing example of this type is Haribhadra's Compendium of Six Views (farJdarfanasamuccaya), and Haribhadra's text was not written until the eighth century. Whether there were precedents for at least some of the key features of Bhaviveka's text is unclear. 34 Since these "investigations" (pa1'fkfit) do not survive, we cannot know whether they anticipated the chapters of Bhaviveka's text. Even if they did, they do not seem to have been collected into a single text. Given the present state of our knowledge of Bhaviveka and his tradition, it seems legitimate to say that Bhaviveka is the source of this distinctive and influential genre of philosophical text.
Bhaviveka and His Buddhist Opponents: Chapters 4 and 5 of the verses on the Heart of the Middle Way (Madhyamakahrdayakarikah) with the commentary entitled The Flame of Reason (Tarkajvala) by Malcolm David Eckel