By Daniel A. Hart
Here, Daniel A. Hart analyzes the result of a radical twenty-year longitudinal research of men's improvement. Integrating quite a lot of examine techniques, Hart assesses character trait, structural-developmental, and crisis-transformational elements within the learn of lives through the years. the writer then develops an unique framework for figuring out the mental similarities and transformations in men's lives.
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Extra info for Becoming Men: The Development of Aspirations, Values, and Adaptational Styles
The capstone of development in Kohlberg's sequence is Stage 5, Social Contract. Underlying and organizing moral judgments is a concern for the relationship of an individual's rights to the rules and regulations of society. Society is perceived as an institution that is intended to serve an individual's interests and protect his fundamental 26 CHAPTER 1 rights; when it fails to do the latter, the rules and regulations can and should be disregarded. An adult might argue that Heinz should break the law and steal the drug in order to save his wife's life because his wife's right to life supersedes society's interest in protecting property.
Individual differences in dependability, impulsivity, and the extent of a cognitive orientation toward life were consistent over this long period of time (and replicate the findings of Kagan and Moss, 1962). Of course, there were changes too, with the men apparently becoming more self-confident and developing greater self-control. Interestingly, Block (1971) concluded that this change in the men from late adolescence to middle adulthood is not without its costs: The experience of becoming an adult is not entirely beneficent, but is more a matter of driving a bargain between the self and the world.
Perhaps the fairest evaluation of Levinson's theory is that it has yet to derive much support from empirical research. On the one hand, Levinson's own data seem to provide strong support for his claims; he found the transformations and age linkages specified by his theory. Even sympathetic critics, however, have noted that his research is problematic for a variety of reasons: (1) The sample does not even approximate a representative sample of American men; few researchers would agree that a description of development derived from such a group is characteristic of men in the United States, much less those in other cultures.
Becoming Men: The Development of Aspirations, Values, and Adaptational Styles by Daniel A. Hart