By Tim Chard MD, FRCOG, Richard Lilford MRCOG, MRCP (auth.)
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19) Weeks 4-6 postconception (4-15 mm embryo) Weeks 6-8 postconception (15-30 mm embryo) Weeks 8-12 postconception (30-60 mm) Primitive streak becomes prominent in caudal half of disc Primitive groove develops in primitive streak as mesoderm forms from primitive streak and moves laterally Allantois (diverticulum of endoderm) protrudes into body stalk Notochord (precursor of nucleus pulposus) develops from blastopore Ectoderm thickens (anterior -> posterior) to form neural plate and neural folds Mesoderm starts to divide into somites starting at the cephalic end (first four will form occiput) Neural folds fuse to form neural tube (anterior neuropore closes on days 24-25, and posterior neuropore on days 2630) Heart (mesoderm behind pharynx) is prominent (circulation established) Head is very prominent Pharyngeal arches form Connection between mid-gut and yolk sac constricts Otic depression forms Head proportionately smaller; neck can be recognised Optic vesicles appear Limb buds appear External ear forms Formation of face Digits and eyelids form Tail disappears All major structures formed.
The bulbocavernosus muscle originates in the perineal body, where it interdigitates with the external anal sphincter. It surrounds the bulb of the vestibule and inserts into the body of the clitoris. The superficial transverse perineal muscle radiates from the perineal body to the ischial ramus . The deep transverse perineal muscle has the same origin and insertion but lies deep to the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm. Perineal body This is a fibromuscular mass into which the bulbocavernosus , transverse perineal , external anal sphincter and levator ani muscles insert.
5 lIh by term. Oxygen and carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide and oxygen diffuse freely across the placenta and net flow is determined by a pressure gradient. For oxygen the gradient is maintained (a) by the high haemoglobin concentration in the fetus (17 g%), (b) by the greater affinity of fetal haemoglobin (HbF) for oxygen (Fig. 23) (the oxygen dissociation curve of HbF is shifted to the left because it is less sensitive to the action of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid), and (c) by the Bohr effect (accumulation of carbon dioxide decreases oxygen affinity of maternal haemoglobin and increases the affinity of HbF).
Basic Sciences for Obstetrics and Gynaecology by Tim Chard MD, FRCOG, Richard Lilford MRCOG, MRCP (auth.)