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By Karl Jaspers

ISBN-10: 3492004431

ISBN-13: 9783492004435

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New PDF release: Descartes' Bones: A Skeletal History of the Conflict between

On a brutal winter's day in 1650 in Stockholm, the Frenchman René Descartes, the main influential and debatable philosopher of his time, used to be buried after a chilly and lonely dying faraway from domestic. 16 years later, the French Ambassador Hugues de Terlon secretly unearthed Descartes' bones and transported them to France.

Why might this devoutly Catholic legitimate care a lot concerning the is still of a thinker who was once hounded from nation to kingdom on fees of atheism? Why could Descartes' bones take this type of unusual, serpentine course over the subsequent 350 years—a direction intersecting many of the grandest occasions conceivable: the beginning of technology, the increase of democracy, the mind-body challenge, the clash among religion and cause? Their tale includes humans from all walks of life—Louis XIV, a Swedish on line casino operator, poets and playwrights, philosophers and physicists, as those humans used the bones in medical stories, stole them, bought them, respected them as relics, fought over them, handed them surreptitiously from hand to hand.

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The nice controversy Descartes ignited maintains to our period: the place Islamic terrorists spurn the fashionable international and pine for a tradition in response to unquestioning religion; the place scientists write bestsellers that passionately make the case for atheism; the place others fight to discover a stability among religion and cause.
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Wenn sie durch Bibelstellen, durch Kirchenautorität gegründet werden, so sind sie Wahrheit. Augustin bekämpft den Aberglauben der Astrologie durch den Offenbarungsglauben, aber mit dem Mittel des Aberglaubens an Dämonen. Das gesamte Werk Augustins ist durchsetzt mit dem Aberglauben, den man »Volksfrömmigkeit« nennt. Er hat in der Zeit seiner praktischen Tätigkeit als Priester alles aufgenommen, was bestand, so Hölle, Fegefeuer, Märtyrerkult, Reliquien, Fürbitte. Er schreibt entzückt, daß »ganz Afrika voll 50 von heiligen Leibern ist«.

Es 44 gibt Rätsel über Rätsel: die Schöpfung der Welt, die Einheit von Seele und Körper. « Die hohe Wahrheit öffnet sich nur dem, der mit seinem ganzen Wesen (totus) in die Philosophie eintritt, nicht nur der sich isolierenden Funktion des Verstandes. Voraussetzung für die Erkenntnis der Wahrheit ist die Reinheit der Seele, ist die durch ein frommes Leben erworbene Würdigkeit, ist die Liebe. Früher ist der Eifer, das Rechte zu tun, als die Begierde, das Wahre zu wissen. Gott schauen wird, wer gut lebt, gut betet, gut studiert.

Die Ergriffenheit von philosophischen Gedanken erscheint leer von diesem Glauben her. Dieser Glaube erscheint absurd vom Philosophieren her. Daß der Glaube vernünftig werde und im Philosophieren sich bestätige, daß Glaube und Philosophie dasselbe werden, dazu soll das Erdenken der Trinität durch Augustin helfen. Er hat die größte, lebenwährende Mühe auf diese Spekulationen gewendet und in seinem umfangreichen Werk über die Trinität niedergelegt. Aber in dieser Einheit von Philosophie und Glauben, die nicht Synthese ist, weil Augustin sie grundsätzlich nirgends trennt, wiederholt sich der Grundzug des gesamten Augustinischen Denkens.

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Augustin by Karl Jaspers


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