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New PDF release: An introduction to GCC : for the GNU compilers gcc and g++

By Brian J. Gough, Richard M. Stallman

ISBN-10: 0954161793

ISBN-13: 9780954161798

This handbook presents a whole educational advent to the GNU C and C++ compilers, gcc and g++. Many books train the C and C++ languages, this publication teaches you the way to take advantage of the compiler itself. all of the universal difficulties and mistake messages encountered through new clients of GCC are conscientiously defined, with quite a few easy-to-follow "Hello international" examples. themes lined comprise: compiling C and C++ courses utilizing header documents and libraries, caution techniques, use of the preprocessor, static and dynamic linking, debugging, optimization, platform-specific thoughts, profiling and insurance trying out, paths and setting variables, and the C++ usual library and templates. contains a specified foreword via Richard M. Stallman, vital developer of GCC and founding father of the GNU venture. all of the cash raised from the sale of this booklet will help the improvement of loose software program and documentation

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Additional info for An introduction to GCC : for the GNU compilers gcc and g++

Example text

H> int main (void) { printf("the value of pi is %f\n", M_PI); return 0; } The constant M_PI is not part of the ANSI/ISO C standard library (it comes from the BSD version of Unix). ) The program can be compiled without the ‘-ansi’ option. 141593 It is also possible to compile the program using ANSI/ISO C, by enabling only the extensions in the GNU C Library itself. 141593 The GNU C Library provides a number of these macros (referred to as feature test macros) which allow control over the support for POSIX ex(4) The ‘-D’ option for defining macros will be explained in detail in the next chapter.

Moreover, inlining may facilitate further optimizations, such as common subexpression elimination, by merging several separate functions into a single large function. The following function sq(x) is a typical example of a function that would benefit from being inlined. It computes x2 , the square of its argument x: double sq (double x) { return x * x; } (1) Temporary values introduced by the compiler during common subexpression elimination are only used internally, and do not affect real variables.

0; unsigned i; for (i = 1; i <= 100000000; i++) { sum += powern (i, i % 5); } printf ("sum = %g\n", sum); return 0; } The main program contains a loop calling the powern function. This function computes the n-th power of a floating point number by repeated multiplication—it has been chosen because it is suitable for both inlining and loop-unrolling. The run-time of the program can be measured using the time command in the GNU Bash shell. 000s The relevant entry in the output for comparing the speed of the resulting executables is the ‘user’ time, which gives the actual CPU time spent running the process.

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An introduction to GCC : for the GNU compilers gcc and g++ by Brian J. Gough, Richard M. Stallman


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