By Ian McNeil
To be had for the 1st time in paperback, this quantity contains twenty-two chapters by way of foreign specialists protecting the complete heritage of know-how from humankind's earliest use of stone instruments to the exploration of house. Written sincerely and with no pointless jargon, each one bankruptcy strains the improvement of its topic from earliest instances to the current day, stressing the social context and its position in medical thought.
* Usefully drawn with over one hundred fifty tables, drawings and photographs
* accomplished indexes of names and subjects
* crucial interpreting for academics and scholars within the background and Philosophy of technological know-how and know-how, commercial heritage and Archaeology.
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Extra resources for An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology (Routledge Companion Encyclopedias)
Gunpowder, mainly used in fireworks, is another Chinese invention. It is surprising that there seems to have been so little transfer of technology to the West in spite of so many travellers passing along the ‘Silk Road’. These, however, were merchants or royal or papal envoys. Technology was, perhaps, above the intellectual level of the merchants and below the notice of the envoys. Marco Polo, for instance, in his Travels, recorded by Rustichello of Pisa in 1298–9, records the glories of architecture, customs, weapons and armour, food, gemstones, crops, natural history, governments and rulers but rarely, if ever, records seeing a technological process in twenty years of wanderings in the Middle East, India and China.
Evans worked on the design from about 1782 to 1790 and licensed over a hundred other millers to use his ideas. Evans’s flour mill lacked one thing. It worked at a constant speed. If the feed hopper was filled, it would grind what was put into it: if the hopper was left empty, the mill and all its functions would continue in operation without producing any meal. Speed regulation was dependent in automatic machines on the principle of negative feedback exemplified by Watt’s centrifugal 30 BASIC TOOLS, DEVICES AN D MECHANIS MS governor added to his rotative engines in 1788.
8cm (1 in) planks for sailing or rowing by thirty-six men. 6 knots) when fully manned. 5cm wide ribs at 9ocm centres but 45 cm apart near the stern, where a steering oar or rudder had been fixed. A variety of iron fastenings had been used in the construction—rib nails, keel plate spikes, steerage frame bolts, gunwhale spikes and keel scarf nails and thole pins to form rowlocks for the oars. Once in place, these were clenched over, after iron roves or diamond-shaped washers had been placed over the shanks of the various fittings.
An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology (Routledge Companion Encyclopedias) by Ian McNeil