By Mario D. Cordero, Benoit Viollet
AMPK has emerged as a major integrator of signs that keep an eye on power stability in the course of the rules of a number of biochemical pathways in eukaryotes.
This booklet makes a speciality of the results of AMPK as a grasp metabolic regulator in ailments, together with new equipment and animal versions. The contributions are written by means of prime specialists within the box and provides an in depth evaluation of the present wisdom of AMPK biology and the function of AMPK in future health and affliction.
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2009). Even if UPS is energy consuming, the specific and UPS-dependent degradation of particular proteins could be energetically advantageous in particular circumstances. In this context, AMPK activation has been found to promote UPS process. AMPK activation results in the increase in expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases called MuRF1 and Atrogin-1 in muscle and cardiac tissues via the regulation of different transcription factors (FoxO and MEF2) (Krawiec et al. 2007; Tong et al. 2009; Baskin and Taegtmeyer 2011).
In adipocytes, AMPK has been proposed to participate in the stimulation of glucose uptake mediated by adiponectin (Wu et al. 2003). GLUT4 translocation is a complex process involving intracellular sorting of GLUT4 storing vesicles, transport of these vesicles to plasma membrane along with cytoskeletal proteins, docking, tethering, and fusion with the plasma membrane. The molecular mechanism responsible for GLUT4 translocation upon insulin stimulation has been well described (Rowland et al. 2011).
The molecular mechanism responsible for GLUT4 translocation upon insulin stimulation has been well described (Rowland et al. 2011). Binding of insulin to its membrane receptor, which is an integral protein in cellular membranes, activates its tyrosine kinase activity, subsequently leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate proteins (Fig. 2). This is followed by the recruitment and activation of PI3K, which results in the generation of second messenger PI-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3).
AMP-activated Protein Kinase by Mario D. Cordero, Benoit Viollet